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Liste aller 45 Präsidenten der USA: Von George Washington bis Donald Trump. Hier finden Sie alle amerikanischen Präsidenten aufgelistet. Alle Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (einschließlich der Südstaaten-Konföderation) mit Abbildungen und Kurzportraits. Die Präsidentschaftswahl in den Vereinigten Staaten ist für den 3. November vorgesehen. Es ist die Wahl zum Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten. Präsident Donald Trump und auf Seite der Demokraten der ihm gelang, einige bisherige blaue Staaten, also US-Bundesstaaten, die in den letzten Wahlen. Truman — Dwight D. Flatex konditionen from Beste Spielothek in Wöltendorf finden original PDF on December 13, Current deployments Conflicts Wars Timeline History: According to historian Joseph Ellisthis was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D. This article is about a position and title in government. Presidents of the United States. Parliamentary system and Parliamentary republic. Archived from the original on December 14, If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses. The Beste Spielothek in Friedingen finden directs casino roxal executive branch of the federal government Beste Spielothek in Parsau finden is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated. Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it.

Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F. Kennedy 's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in , but withdrew from Democratic Primary.

Additionally, Gerald Ford , who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term, but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the election.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W. Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the preceding president.

Speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may not be increased or reduced during his or her current term of office.

The White House in Washington, D. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

Camp David , officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland , is the president's country residence.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. Blair House , located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park , serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.

The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Prior to , all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death.

Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

There are currently since January 20, five living former presidents. In order of office they are:. Jimmy Carter age 94 since Bush age 94 since Bill Clinton age 72 since Bush age 72 since Barack Obama age 57 since Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P. For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation.

For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. Executive branch of the U. Government Executive Office of the President.

President [1] [2] The Honorable [3]. Head of State Head of Government. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation.

Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties. Powers of the President of the United States.

Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Four ruffles and flourishes and 'Hail to the Chief' long version.

Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency. United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.

Transportation of the President of the United States. This " see also " section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Government of the United States portal. Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph.

Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.

Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".

Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association.

Origins and Development 5th ed. Its Origins and Development. The Making of the American Constitution. Commander in Chief Clause". National Constitution Center Educational Resources some internal navigation required.

Retrieved May 23, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. McPherson, Tried by War: United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved February 25, About the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The Federalist 69 reposting. Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original PDF on November 26, Retrieved December 15, No clear mechanism or requirement exists today for the president and Congress to consult.

The War Powers Resolution of contains only vague consultation requirements. Instead, it relies on reporting requirements that, if triggered, begin the clock running for Congress to approve the particular armed conflict.

By the terms of the Resolution, however, Congress need not act to disapprove the conflict; the cessation of all hostilities is required in 60 to 90 days merely if Congress fails to act.

Many have criticized this aspect of the Resolution as unwise and unconstitutional, and no president in the past 35 years has filed a report "pursuant" to these triggering provisions.

The President's War Powers". Retrieved September 28, Retrieved November 8, Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing.

He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way. It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance.

Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration. Retrieved August 7, Retrieved February 5, Noel Canning , U.

United States , U. Olson , U. Retrieved January 23, But not since President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M.

Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes.

The prosecutor charged that Mr. Weinberger's efforts to hide his notes may have 'forestalled impeachment proceedings against President Reagan' and formed part of a pattern of 'deception and obstruction.

In light of President Bush's own misconduct, we are gravely concerned about his decision to pardon others who lied to Congress and obstructed official investigations.

Former president Clinton issued pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges.

Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved November 29, Archived from the original PDF on December 13, Retrieved November 9, Use of the state secrets privilege in courts has grown significantly over the last twenty-five years.

In the twenty-three years between the decision in Reynolds [] and the election of Jimmy Carter, in , there were four reported cases in which the government invoked the privilege.

Between and , there were a total of fifty-one reported cases in which courts ruled on invocation of the privilege.

Because reported cases only represent a fraction of the total cases in which the privilege is invoked or implicated, it is unclear precisely how dramatically the use of the privilege has grown.

But the increase in reported cases is indicative of greater willingness to assert the privilege than in the past. American Civil Liberties Union.

Retrieved October 4, Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved November 11, The American Bar Association said President Bush's use of "signing statements", which allow him to sign a bill into law but not enforce certain provisions, disregards the rule of law and the separation of powers.

Legal experts discuss the implications. Boy Scouts of America. The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on December 28, The Kennedy White House Restoration.

The White House Historical Association. Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy " ". Twin Cities Daily Planet. But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds U of Minnesota Press.

Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned.

Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees.

Bush White House's claims are rooted in ideas "about the 'divine' right of kings" Retrieved September 20, Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch".

Ginsberg and Crenson unite". Retrieved September 21, There is the small, minority-owned firm with deep ties to President Obama's Chicago backers, made eligible by the Federal Reserve to handle potentially lucrative credit deals.

Wilson, the group's president, tells his eager researchers. The Executive Branch, Annenberg Classroom". The National Constitution Center. Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment".

Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved June 12, The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The Annenberg Public Policy Center.

CRS Report for Congress. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 2, Retrieved August 1, The Heritage Guide to The Constitution.

Retrieved July 27, Retrieved February 20, From George Washington to George W. Bush 2nd revised ed. Office of the Historian, U.

Retrieved July 24, Constitution of the United States of America: Retrieved August 3, A quick history of the presidential oath".

Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The American Presidency Project [online]. Again, a candidate needs a majority of the vote to be elected.

In Brazil, a president cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the number of terms a president can serve.

A second system is the semi-presidential system , also known as the French model. In this system, as in the parliamentary system, there are both a president and a prime minister; but unlike the parliamentary system, the president may have significant day-to-day power.

For example, in France, when their party controls the majority of seats in the National Assembly , the president can operate closely with the parliament and prime minister , and work towards a common agenda.

When the National Assembly is controlled by their opponents, however, the president can find themselves marginalized with the opposition party prime minister exercising most of the power.

Though the prime minister remains an appointee of the president, the president must obey the rules of parliament, and select a leader from the house's majority holding party.

Thus, sometimes the president and prime minister can be allies, sometimes rivals; the latter situation is known in France as cohabitation.

Variants of the French semi-presidential system, developed at the beginning of the Fifth Republic by Charles de Gaulle , are used in France , Portugal , Romania , Taiwan [1] , Sri Lanka and several post-colonial countries which have emulated the French model.

In Finland, although the constitution moved towards a ceremonial presidency, the system is still formally semi-presidential, with the President of Finland retaining e.

The parliamentary republic , is a parliamentary system in which the presidency is largely ceremonial with either de facto or no significant executive authority such as the President of Austria or de jure no significant executive power such as the President of Ireland , and the executive powers rests with the Prime Minister who automatically assumes the post as head of a majority party or coalition, but takes oath of office administered by the president.

However, the president is head of the civil service, commander in chief of the armed forces and in some cases can dissolve parliament.

A variation of the parliamentary republic is a system with an executive president in which the president is the head of state and the government but unlike a presidential system , is elected by and accountable to a parliament, and referred to as president.

Countries using this system include Botswana , South Africa and Suriname. Only a tiny minority of modern republics do not have a single head of state.

Some examples of this are:. In dictatorships , the title of president is frequently taken by self-appointed or military-backed leaders.

Such is the case in many states: President for Life is a title assumed by some dictators to try to ensure that their authority or legitimacy is never questioned.

Ironically, most leaders who proclaim themselves President for Life do not in fact successfully serve a life term.

Kim Il-sung was named Eternal President of the Republic after his death. In ancient Rome, Lucius Cornelius Sulla appointed himself in 82 BC to an entirely new office, dictator rei publicae constituendae causa "dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution" , which was functionally identical to the dictatorate rei gerundae causa "for the matter to be done," e.

The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar , who made himself " Perpetual Dictator " commonly mistranslated as 'Dictator-for-life' in 45 BC.

His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in and five years later, the French senate proclaimed him emperor a monarchical title.

Several presidents have ruled until their death, but they have not proclaimed themselves as President for Life. As the country's head of state, in most countries the president is entitled to certain perquisites, and may have a prestigious residence, often a lavish mansion or palace, sometimes more than one e.

A common presidential symbol is the presidential sash worn most often by presidents in Latin America and Africa as a symbol of the continuity of the office.

United Nations member countries in columns, other entities at the beginning:. However, such an official is explicitly not the president of the country.

A separate head of state generally exists in their country that instead serves as the president or monarch of the country. Thus, such officials are really premiers , and to avoid confusion are often described simply as 'prime minister' when being mentioned internationally.

President can also be the title of the chief executive at a lower administrative level, such as the parish presidents of the parishes of the U.

Perhaps the best known sub-national presidents are the borough presidents of the Five Boroughs of New York City.

In Poland the President of the City Polish: Prezydent miasta is the executive authority of the municipality elected in direct elections, the equivalent of the mayor.

Governors of ethnic republics in the Russian Federation used to have the title of President, occasionally alongside other, secondary titles such as Chairman of the Government also used by Prime Minister of Russia.

This likely reflects the origin of Russian republics as homelands for various ethnic groups: Thus, the ASSRs and their eventual successors would have more in common with nation-states than with ordinary administrative divisions, at least in spirit, and would choose titles accordingly.

Over the course of the s the presidents of Russian republics would progressively change their title to that of Head Russian: Despite this, however, Presidents of Tatarstan would reject this change and, as of , retain their title in defiance of Russian law.

The new title did not result in any changes in the powers wielded by the governors. The Lord President of the Council is one of the Great Officers of State in England who presides over meetings of British Privy Council ; the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister is technically a committee of the Council, and all decisions of the Cabinet are formally approved through Orders in Council.

Although the Lord President is a member of the Cabinet, the position is largely a ceremonial one and is traditionally given to either the Leader of the House of Commons or the Leader of the House of Lords.

Historically the President of the Board of Trade was a cabinet member. In Alderney , the elected head of government is called the President of the States of Alderney.

In the Isle of Man , there is a President of Tynwald. In Spain , the executive leaders of the autonomous communities regions are called presidents.

In each community, they can be called Presidente de la Comunidad or Presidente del Consejo among others. They are elected by their respective regional assemblies and have similar powers to a state president or governor.

Below a president, there can be a number of or "vice presidents" or occasionally "deputy presidents" and sometimes several "assistant presidents" or "assistant vice presidents", depending on the organisation and its size.

These posts do not hold the same power but more of a subordinate position to the president. However, power can be transferred in special circumstances to the deputy or vice president.

Normally vice presidents hold some power and special responsibilities below that of the president.

In some countries the speaker of their unicameral legislatures, or of one or both houses of bicameral legislatures, the speakers have the title of president of "the body", as in the case of Spain , where the Speaker of the Congress is the President of the Congress of Deputies and the Speaker of the Senate is the President of the Senate.

In general, a court comprises several chambers, each with its own president; thus the most senior of these is called the "first president" as in: Similarly in English legal practice the most senior judge in each division uses this title e.

In the Spanish Judiciary , the leader of a court of multiples judges is called President of the Court. The Constitutional Court is not part of the Judiciary, but the leader of it is called President of the Constitutional Court.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 September This article is about a position and title in government.

For the highest officer of a corporation, see President corporate title. For the system of government, see Presidential system. For other uses, see President disambiguation.

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April Learn how and when to remove this template message. President of the Republic.

Retrieved November 9, Casino roxal elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Archived from the original on February jackpot city casino ratings, Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. In most states of the United States, each elector is committed to voting for a specified candidate determined by the popular vote in each state, so that the people, jogos de casino gratis voting for each elector, are in effect voting for the candidate. Bush — Bill Clinton — George W. Nominees participate in nationally televised debatesand while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates. As the country's head of state, in most countries the president is entitled to certain perquisites, bayern fc koeln may have a prestigious residence, often a lavish mansion or palace, sometimes more than one e. President Reagan told Jetzz of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing. Some have even made arrangements for their own radio mk gutscheine at the site. Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe. Trumanpresident when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more Wonky Wabbits - Rizk Online Casino two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the election. Recapturing the Oval Office: This article needs additional citations for verification. Air Force aircraft carrying the casino roxal will use the call sign "Air Force One.

Through the Electoral College , registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term.

This is the only federal election in the United States which is not decided by popular vote. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term.

In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Donald Trump of New York is the 45th and current president.

He assumed office on January 20, The new states were independent of each other as nation states [19] and recognized the necessity of closely coordinating their efforts against the British.

It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens.

The states agreed to a resolution that settled competing western land claims. The Articles took effect on March 1, , when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.

In , the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs.

They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in , Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Maryland , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms.

When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.

Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington 's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.

The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law.

Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.

Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.

City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. One of the most important of all executive powers is the president's role as Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces.

The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.

The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.

According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.

Presidents have historically initiated the process for going to war, [31] [32] but critics have charged that there have been several conflicts in which presidents did not get official declarations, including Theodore Roosevelt 's military move into Panama in , [31] the Korean War , [31] the Vietnam War , [31] and the invasions of Grenada in [33] and Panama in The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.

Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.

General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Within the Executive Office, the president's innermost layer of aides and their assistants are located in the White House Office.

Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

George Washington first claimed the privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay 's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain.

While not enshrined in the Constitution, or any other law, Washington's action created the precedent for the privilege. When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v.

Jones , U. These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. The Constitution's Ineligibility Clause prevents the president and all other executive officers from simultaneously being a member of Congress.

Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress. However, the president can take an indirect role in shaping legislation, especially if the president's political party has a majority in one or both houses of Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

These reports may be either written or oral, but today the greatest in importance are given as the oral State of the Union addresses, which often outline the president's legislative proposals for the coming year.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

One critic charged that presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars' — each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House".

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn.

For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children.

Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Presidential traditions also involve the president's role as head of government. Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition.

During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

The modern presidency holds the president as one of the nation's premier celebrities. Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [66] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

The nation's Founding Fathers expected the Congress —which was the first branch of government described in the Constitution —to be the dominant branch of government; they did not expect a strong executive department.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must:.

A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections , which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates before their national nominating conventions , where the most successful candidate is made the party's nominee for president.

Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of There have been two contingent presidential elections in the nation's history.

A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [98] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. In response to the unprecedented length of Roosevelt's presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment was adopted in The amendment bars anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than two years 24 months of another president's four-year term.

Truman , president when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more than two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the election.

Since the amendment's adoption, five presidents have served two full terms: Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H.

Bush sought a second term, but were defeated. Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it.

Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F. Kennedy 's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in , but withdrew from Democratic Primary.

Additionally, Gerald Ford , who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term, but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the election.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W. Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the preceding president.

Speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may not be increased or reduced during his or her current term of office.

The White House in Washington, D. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

Camp David , officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland , is the president's country residence.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s. Blair House , located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park , serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.

The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family. As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval.

Prior to , all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death. Bush , and all subsequent presidents.

Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

There are currently since January 20, five living former presidents. In order of office they are:. Jimmy Carter age 94 since Bush age 94 since Bill Clinton age 72 since Bush age 72 since Barack Obama age 57 since Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.

For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States.

Countries using this system include Botswana , South Africa and Suriname. Only a tiny minority of modern republics do not have a single head of state.

Some examples of this are:. In dictatorships , the title of president is frequently taken by self-appointed or military-backed leaders.

Such is the case in many states: President for Life is a title assumed by some dictators to try to ensure that their authority or legitimacy is never questioned.

Ironically, most leaders who proclaim themselves President for Life do not in fact successfully serve a life term.

Kim Il-sung was named Eternal President of the Republic after his death. In ancient Rome, Lucius Cornelius Sulla appointed himself in 82 BC to an entirely new office, dictator rei publicae constituendae causa "dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution" , which was functionally identical to the dictatorate rei gerundae causa "for the matter to be done," e.

The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar , who made himself " Perpetual Dictator " commonly mistranslated as 'Dictator-for-life' in 45 BC.

His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed "First Consul for life" in and five years later, the French senate proclaimed him emperor a monarchical title.

Several presidents have ruled until their death, but they have not proclaimed themselves as President for Life. As the country's head of state, in most countries the president is entitled to certain perquisites, and may have a prestigious residence, often a lavish mansion or palace, sometimes more than one e.

A common presidential symbol is the presidential sash worn most often by presidents in Latin America and Africa as a symbol of the continuity of the office.

United Nations member countries in columns, other entities at the beginning:. However, such an official is explicitly not the president of the country.

A separate head of state generally exists in their country that instead serves as the president or monarch of the country.

Thus, such officials are really premiers , and to avoid confusion are often described simply as 'prime minister' when being mentioned internationally.

President can also be the title of the chief executive at a lower administrative level, such as the parish presidents of the parishes of the U. Perhaps the best known sub-national presidents are the borough presidents of the Five Boroughs of New York City.

In Poland the President of the City Polish: Prezydent miasta is the executive authority of the municipality elected in direct elections, the equivalent of the mayor.

Governors of ethnic republics in the Russian Federation used to have the title of President, occasionally alongside other, secondary titles such as Chairman of the Government also used by Prime Minister of Russia.

This likely reflects the origin of Russian republics as homelands for various ethnic groups: Thus, the ASSRs and their eventual successors would have more in common with nation-states than with ordinary administrative divisions, at least in spirit, and would choose titles accordingly.

Over the course of the s the presidents of Russian republics would progressively change their title to that of Head Russian: Despite this, however, Presidents of Tatarstan would reject this change and, as of , retain their title in defiance of Russian law.

The new title did not result in any changes in the powers wielded by the governors. The Lord President of the Council is one of the Great Officers of State in England who presides over meetings of British Privy Council ; the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister is technically a committee of the Council, and all decisions of the Cabinet are formally approved through Orders in Council.

Although the Lord President is a member of the Cabinet, the position is largely a ceremonial one and is traditionally given to either the Leader of the House of Commons or the Leader of the House of Lords.

Historically the President of the Board of Trade was a cabinet member. In Alderney , the elected head of government is called the President of the States of Alderney.

In the Isle of Man , there is a President of Tynwald. In Spain , the executive leaders of the autonomous communities regions are called presidents.

In each community, they can be called Presidente de la Comunidad or Presidente del Consejo among others.

They are elected by their respective regional assemblies and have similar powers to a state president or governor.

Below a president, there can be a number of or "vice presidents" or occasionally "deputy presidents" and sometimes several "assistant presidents" or "assistant vice presidents", depending on the organisation and its size.

These posts do not hold the same power but more of a subordinate position to the president. However, power can be transferred in special circumstances to the deputy or vice president.

Normally vice presidents hold some power and special responsibilities below that of the president. In some countries the speaker of their unicameral legislatures, or of one or both houses of bicameral legislatures, the speakers have the title of president of "the body", as in the case of Spain , where the Speaker of the Congress is the President of the Congress of Deputies and the Speaker of the Senate is the President of the Senate.

In general, a court comprises several chambers, each with its own president; thus the most senior of these is called the "first president" as in: Similarly in English legal practice the most senior judge in each division uses this title e.

In the Spanish Judiciary , the leader of a court of multiples judges is called President of the Court. The Constitutional Court is not part of the Judiciary, but the leader of it is called President of the Constitutional Court.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 2 September This article is about a position and title in government.

For the highest officer of a corporation, see President corporate title. For the system of government, see Presidential system.

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